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# Physical Science Formulas ## Physical Science Formulas

Density= mass/volume
Kelvin= •Celsius+273
%Error= [(Accepted value-Experimental value)/Accepted value] X 100
Speed= distance/time
Acceleration= change in velocity/time
Change in velocity= final velocity-initial velocity

Acceleration= net force/mass
Force= mass X acceleration
Gravitational force= mass X (acceleration due to gravity)
Weight= massX9.8 m/s²
Momentum (p)= mass x velocity
Force= (mvf-mvi)/time
Change in displacement =initial velocity (change in time)+ ½ acceleration (change in time)/2
Average velocity=change in displacement/change in time =(final velocity+initial velocity)/2
Average acceleration=change in velocity/change in time.

Kinetic energy =½ mass X (velocity)/2
Gravitational potential energy (GPE) =mass X 9.8 m/s² X height
Mechanical energy =gravitational potential energy+kinetic energy

Work= force X distance
Power= work/time
Efficiency= (work out/work in) X 100%
Ideal mechanical advantage (IMA)= length of effort arm/length of resistance arm= Le/Lr
Ideal mechanical advantage (IMA)= radius of wheel/radius of axle= rw/ra IMA = effort distance/resistance= length of slope/height of slope= I/H

Change in thermal energy=mass X change in temperature X specific heat
Or
Q= mX(T final-T initial)X Cp
Q= mass X heat of fusion=mHf
Q= mass X heat of vaporization=mHv

Electric current= voltage difference/resistance or I=V/R
Electric power= current or P=I X V
Electric energy= power X time or E=P X t
Series Circuits
It=I1=I2=13=...
Vt=V1+V2+V3...
1/Rt= R1+R2+R3+...
Parallel Circuits
It=I1+I2+I3+...
Vt=V1=V2=V3=...
1/Rt=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+...

Wave Velocity=Wavelength X Frequency or vw=Á X f

Index of refraction=speed of light in a vacuum/speed of light in a substance or n=c/v

Pressure= force/area or P=F/A
Boyle's law P1 X V1 = P2 X V2
Charles's law V1/T1 = V2/T2

Surface area of a rectangular solid=2(h X w)+2(h X I)+2(w X I) Beyonder
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