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Fanfic Copyright

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Fanfic Copyright

Post by Beyonder on Sun Jul 17, 2016 9:10 am

What is Fan Art?


Fan art or fanart is artwork created by fans of a work of fiction (generally visual media such as comics, movies, television shows or video games) and derived from a character or other aspect of that work.

What is Fan Fiction Writing?


Fan fiction or fanfiction (also abbreviated to fan fic, fanfic or fic) is fiction about characters or settings from an original work of fiction, created by fans of that work rather than by its original creator. It is a popular form of fan labor, particularly since the advent of the internet.

Is Fanfic Copyrighted?


No Fanfic is not copyrighted.

Why isnt Fanfic Copyrighted?


Under U.S. Copyright law, the legality of a given work of fan fiction will depend principally on three legal doctrines:
(1) copyright-ability of the underlying source work.
(2) the derivative work right.
(3) fair use.

To have copyright protection under U.S. law, a work must be an "original [work] of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression . . . from which [it] can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device."  Such works of authorship include but are not limited to literature, music, plays, pictures and architectural works. Copyright can not be applied to ideas, concepts, facts or other broad principles regardless of whether they are expressed in a tangible medium or otherwise. Copyright goes into effect automatically, even if a work is not published. For works created in 1978 or later, copyright protection persists for the life of the author plus 70 years; in the case of an anonymous work, a pseudonymous work, or a work made for hire, the copyright endures for a term of 95 years from publication, or for 120 years from the year of its creation, whichever expires first. According to current United States copyright, copyright owners have the exclusive right "to prepare derivative works based upon [their] copyrighted work." A derivative work is any work, including fanfiction[dubious – discuss] based upon one or more preexisting works. In the case where a copyright owner chooses to exercise his/her exclusive right to prepare derivative works against a work of fanfiction, s/he can sue the fanfiction writer for copyright infringement. To prove infringement, an owner must present evidence establishing that the accused has copied protected elements of the original work and the accused work does not constitute fair use. The possible remedies available if infringement can be proven include an order to cease sharing and/or to destroy the work (known as an injunction), or monetary damages. The remedy is dependent on the harm done to the copyright owner, the intent of the infringing person, and the grievousness of the infringement. An example of injunction as remedy was seen in the case of Anderson v. Stallone. There, Sylvester Stallone successfully pursued an action for copyright infringement against Anderson, an author who wrote a proposed script for Rocky IV, by proving that the copyright-protected characters used in the previous Rocky movies were central to the new script. The court enjoined Anderson from pursuing the creation of a movie or other published work based on his script Fanfiction is not infringing if it constitutes fair use of the underlying copyrighted work. In determining whether a particular use constitutes fair use, courts consider the following four factors: "the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; the nature of the copyrighted work; the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work." Fair use is assessed on a case-by-case basis. While such genres as parody and criticism are enumerated by statute and case law as presumptively fair uses of a copyrighted work, fan fiction has not historically been recognized by U.S. courts as necessarily constituting these or other enumerated fair use genres, and thus neither falls categorically inside nor categorically outside the presumptive boundaries of fair use. Works of fanfiction are more likely to constitute fair use if they are "trans-formative" with respect to the original work, if they are non-commercial, if they appropriate relatively little of the original work, and/or if they do not tend to detract from the potential market for or value of the original work.- Legal Issues
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